Period Pain? Here what you need to know

Period Pain? Here what you need to know

Painful menstrual cycles are referred to as dysmenorrhoea. Primary dysmenorrhoea is period pain that occurs during or shortly after your first period and has no recognised cause. Secondary dysmenorrhoea is period discomfort induced by certain reproductive illnesses such as adenomyosis, endometriosis, or fibroids.

The uterine lining releases hormone-like chemicals (prostaglandins) that induce the uterine muscle to contract strongly, producing pain and reducing blood supply to the uterus. Prostaglandins of several sorts are produced throughout the body, but prostaglandin F2X is responsible for period discomfort.

Period pain can affect women of any age, and some women find that their periods are no longer unpleasant after pregnancy and childbirth.

Symptoms of dysmenorrhoea

Symptoms of dysmenorrhoea can include:

  • pain low in the abdomen that can spread to the lower back and legs
  • pain that is gripping or experienced as a constant ache, or a combination of both.


  • the pain starts when the period starts, or earlier
  • the first 24 hours may be the most painful
  • clots may be passed in the menstrual blood.

Dysmenorrhoea can be associated with:

  • headaches
  • nausea and vomiting
  • digestive problems, such as diarrhoea or constipation
  • fainting
  • premenstrual symptoms, such as tender breasts and a swollen abdomen, which may continue throughout the period
  • pain continuing after the first 24 hours (this tends to subside after two or three days).


Causes of primary dysmenorrhoea

Women with primary dysmenorrhoea have higher amounts of prostaglandins, which induce more powerful uterine contractions than normal. The cause of the elevated prostaglandins is unknown.

Treatment for primary dysmenorrhoea

Women suffering from dysmenorrhoea should get a complete medical check to ensure that their period discomfort is not caused by a reproductive problem such as endometriosis or fibroids. 

Treatment options for dysmenorrhoea can include: 

  • pain-relieving medication, such as paracetamol.
  • medication that inhibits prostaglandins, such as ibuprofen or other anti-inflammatory medication.
  • regular exercise and attention to overall physical fitness
  • relaxation techniques.
  • the oral combined contraceptive pill, which reduces prostaglandins and therefore reduces pain.
  • bed rest during the first day or so of the period.
  • using Eva™ on regular basis to get relief thanks to Graphene Heating and TENS Technology.

Causes of secondary dysmenorrhoea

Some of the causes of secondary dysmenorrhoea include:

  • endometriosis – the cells that line the uterus can migrate to other parts of the pelvis, but they behave differently, producing acute pain during periods.
  • fibroids – it is believed that the sex hormones affect benign tumours made of muscle and tissue that can develop inside the uterus. The majority of women who have fibroids have no symptoms
  • adenomyosis – the development of endometrial cells in the uterine muscular layers. Adenomyosis is difficult to treat.

Treatment for secondary dysmenorrhoea

Treating secondary dysmenorrhoea means treating the underlying condition. In all these cases, the use of Eva™ can be very useful in reducing menstrual cramps.

Treatment for endometriosis

Treatment for endometriosis can include:

  • hormone therapy
  • surgery
  • a combination of both.

Treatment for fibroids 

Treatment for fibroids can include:

  • medication to shrink the fibroids, before surgery
  • MRI and ultrasound – in which the MRI locates the fibroid, and the ultrasound is used to heat and destroy the fibroid tissue
  • arterial embolisation – in which sand-like particles are injected into the artery to block the blood supply to the fibroid, causing it to gradually die
  • surgical removal of the fibroid, by various methods.

Treatment for adenomyosis

Adenomyosis is difficult to treat. Endometrial cell suppression may reduce menstrual pain, heavy periods, or painful intercourse (three of the possible symptoms related to adenomyosis).

The only cure for adenomyosis at this time is hysterectomy – surgically removing the whole of the body of the uterus and cervix.

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